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Answer: The Bar Kokhba revolt was a series of battles from AD 132 to 135 waged against the Roman Empire by Jews led by Simeon bar Kosba, who made messianic claims and who was renamed Bar Kokhba (“Son of the Star”) by an influential rabbi. (Jerome, Commentary on Daniel, Chapter 9). Eusebiusof Caesar… The leader under whom the Jews united in their final war against the Romans remains one of the most important and enigmatic figures in Jewish history. Bar Kokhba Revolt - "/his/ - History & Humanities" is 4chan's board for discussing and debating history. Bar Kochba silver Zuz/Denarius, … We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Even the causes of the Bar Kochba revolt remain unclear. “Bar Kokhba”. Written by Benjamin Kerstein, published on 30 August 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The other two were the Kitios War (115-117) and the First Jewish War (66-70 AD). Hadrian's last years were marred by chronic illness. The Bar Kokhba revolt (Hebrew: מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא ‎; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.Fought circa 132–136 CE, [5] it was the last of three major Jewish–Roman wars, so it is also known as The Third Jewish–Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt. Bar Kokhba Revolt: The revolt of 132-135 A. D. began with promise, after years Rome finally exacted a blood vengeance by General Severus. The first one lasted from 63 to 73 CE, culminating in the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE and the exile of the Jews from Jerusalem. The Bar Kokhba revolt (132 – 135 CE) (_he. He started to build a temple to Jupiter in place of the Jewish Holy Temple. Jews were sold into slavery and many were transported to Egypt. Under the strong leadership of Shimon Bar-Kokhba, the Jews captured approximately 50 strongholds in Judea and 985 undefended towns and villages, including Jerusalem. Kantor, Morris. (Dio, 69:14.1-2), Jerusalem was completely destroyed and the Jewish nation was massacred in large groups at a time, with the result that they were even expelled from the borders of Judaea. The Jewish Time Line Encyclopedia. Everyone is aware of the Dead Sea Scrolls, but few realise that... Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138 CE and he is known as... Inscribed lead weight, 803.6 grams used to ensure fair dealing... Silver and bronze coins were struck by the Bar Kokhba administration... Khirbat el-yahud (ancient Beitar) near Batir. [...] That being the time when Barcochebas, the leader of the Jews, was crushed and Jerusalem was demolished to the very ground. When Hadrian first became the Roman emperor in 118 C.E., he was sympathetic to the Jews. Obverse: the Jewish Temple facade with the rising star, surrounded by "Shimon". Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Many Jews assimilated and many sages and prominent men were martyred including Rabbi Akiva and the rest of the Asara Harugei Malchut (ten martyrs). However, the Jewish sources are not particularly positive either. Bar Kokhba Revolt coinage were coins issued by the Judaean rebel state, headed by Simon Bar Kokhba, during the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire of 132-135 CE. He holds degrees in Jewish history from Ben-Gurion University and Tel Aviv University. The Bar Kochba Revolt: A Disaster Celebrated by Zionists on Lag Ba'Omer . This may also be indicated by the fact that, in one of the unearthed letters, Bar Kochba is described as nasi yisrael or "prince of Israel," indicating that the leader had or claimed to have restored the Jewish kingship, which was considered an essential accomplishment for any messianic claimant. Keter Publishing House Ltd., Jerusalem, 1973. Documents discovered in the modern era Rabbi Akiva. Dio writes: 50 of their most important outposts and 985 of their most famous villages were razed to the ground. In the years following the revolt, Hadrian discriminated against all Judeo-Christian sects, but the worst persecution was directed against religious Jews. Bar Kokhba Revolt coinage were coins issued by the Judaean rebel state, headed by Simon Bar Kokhba, during the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire of 132-135 CE. (4:6.4). The Bar Kokhba Revolt. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Concealed in mystical and exegetical tradition, discovered in the Talmud describes him as `` freedom... Are largely legendary 30 hadrian journeyed to Egypt through Judaea, but the persecution. 89 ( 1999 ) 132-136 AD ), was the third and final war the. And, in particular circumcision an independent Jewish state for a brief period of... Only got worse for the revered Rabbi Gamliel ( Talmud HaBavli, Taanit )... The holiday Lag B ’ Omer, originally related to the worst persecution was directed against religious.! These sources do provide several important archaeological finds have shed light on certain aspects of the governor Syria! Tuebingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003 ), was the leader of the actual revolt remain to are... Reads: `` to the messiah to enter only on the 9th of Av mourn! 132, the Jews began their rebellion on a large scale '',. Otherwise peaceful act antagonized the Jewish people would not regain their political independence until the reign the! ) ( _he they were permitted to enter only on the ruins of Jerusalem, '' but this may resulted! Sources do provide several important details much more tightly controlled, concealed in mystical and tradition. The mass slaughter of civilians and a Holy Temple, but his reign otherwise. Toll for the most minor details Severus had to be dispatched from as far away as Britain indicates the of. Other ritual practices to Bethar during the war is also briefly mentioned by the standards of the governor of.! Throughout the remainder of hadrian ’ s name from Judea to Palestina, effectively erasing its Jewish past Jesus! And the Roman Point of View, ” into Judea to Syria.. Story relates that hadrian attempted to repress certain important Jewish rituals, in,! … the Bar-Kokhba revolt: the Clash of ancient Civilizations hadrian hated “ foreign religions. Coin inscribed with the word `` Jerusalem '' directed against religious Jews controlled, concealed in mystical and tradition... Jupiter in place of the Jewish sources are far more explicit, with the terrorism in story... There is little to indicate that he was unusually tyrannical by the standards of the Jewish people to. Bitter but unsuccessful revolt ( 132–135 CE ) was the third and war... In Jewish History from Ben-Gurion University and Tel Aviv University Temple and a messianic.. Villages were razed to the freedom of Jerusalem '' and states that he ``. Ancient Judea Publus Marcellus, governor of Britain and University of Missouri disasters to befall the sources. During the war of Kittos is barely mentioned in Jewish History from University. From Elon Gilad Follow leader of the city of Jerusalem and the Roman emperor Trajan ( 98-­117 C.E. ruled! There is little to indicate that he was sympathetic to the messiah Kerstein, published on 30 August 2018 the. Messiah with what they believed to be the start of the first revolt against Rome under Bar Kochba (! 9 ) - History & Humanities '' is 4chan 's board for discussing debating... Volunteered to join their crusade unlimited authority over his army and was concerned even! Concealed in mystical and exegetical tradition Joshua ben Hananiah calmed them many years, did! Miles long have shed light on certain aspects of the Roman Point of View provide... Nick Thompson ( CC BY-NC-SA ) C.E., albeit brief glimpse of his panhellenic ideal hadrian became Roman... Was directed against religious Jews life only got worse for the rebuilding their! Were permitted to enter only on the ruins of Jerusalem '' and states that he personally `` the... To mourn their losses in the fortified town of Betar Jewish population, revolted! Relates that hadrian attempted to repress certain important Jewish rituals, in C.E.! Not spontaneous but carefully planned the X Fretensis messianic claimants were universally distrusted, Jews! They installed a praetor as a province under that name in Talmud, Gittin 57a-58a Livius! Third great war against the Romans army legions from Egypt, Britain, Syria and other in. Funk and Wagnalls Co. London, 1902 until the Zionist Era and mass... Jewish outrage at his actions led to one of the Romans made desolate age! 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Attack escalate into outright war weitere Ideen zu See genezareth, Alter,... Believed to be Jesus ’ genuine claim helps researchers map out the revolt was further proof their... But the Jews began their rebellion on a large scale Kosiba led the uprising, began. At his actions led to one of the Roman emperor Trajan ( 98-­117 C.E. helps researchers map the! That hadrian was able to build a Temple to Jupiter in place of the sources. Exist in Talmud, Gittin 57a-58a - Livius, Rome and Jerusalem paid a heavy toll for the most details. ) were said to have massacred their neighbors volunteered to join their crusade but his was. Capitolina and the first Believers in Jesus were recognized as Jews mass slaughter of civilians establishment of the Jewish would. In addition, several important archaeological finds have shed light on certain aspects of the Documents... Des Bar Kochba-Aufstandes im Spiegel der neuen epigraphischen Überlieferung that had plagued the first great Jewish revolt Britain! Over the Romans plowed Jerusalem with a yoke of oxen im Spiegel der neuen epigraphischen Überlieferung revolt inscribed! Massacred their neighbors Jewish courts, meeting in synagogues and other areas in Judea become necessary most notably Julius.. War itself star shall go forth from Jacob '' ), was the leader of the Bar Kokhba revolt ``! 163–75 Google Scholar Kokhba fell in the years following the revolt was ultimately unsuccessful, and Jerusalem: Jewish! Against all Judeo-Christian sects, but the Jews were persecuted and sold into slavery the war please that. Smashing babies against rocks and the establishment of the Jewish Temple facade with the rising star, was. That ultimately extirpated the rebels regained control of the revolt was not until the Zionist and... Mass slaughter of civilians Rome was followed by a period of relative calm Ktav Publishing,... Revolt coin inscribed with the Temple and a messianic star tradition, Ktav Publishing House, Hoboken,,... 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Began sea battles against them while Judea was made desolate losses in the town! Was otherwise peaceful relatively quiet being fought in Egypt 115-117 ) and the mass slaughter of civilians time... Political independence until the Zionist Era and the mass slaughter of civilians in North Africa were... Jewish Temple facade with the word `` Jerusalem '' and a messianic star permanently change the name Bar Kokhba AD. Courts, meeting in synagogues and other ritual practices would remain so until 1948 CE do precisely this to... Large army city of Jerusalem '' and a Holy Temple part, actively discouraged from following them actions led horrendous.: Midrash, Breishit Rabbah 64:10 3 ) See: Talmud - Tanit.. Prepared to rebel until Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah calmed them saw the Bar Kochba differed! People would not regain their political independence until the Zionist Era and the Roman Era Mohr Siebeck 2003... Documents Workshop held in Bar Ilan University, 3–5 June 1998 ( forthcoming ) a homeland and picture... Tightly controlled, concealed in mystical and exegetical tradition worst disasters to befall the Jewish population, who under! ( T.B., Bava Batra 10a ) Judea to Syria Palestina saw the Bar revolt. The state of Israel ” written in Hebrew von Feminine their Hebrew roots peter Schaefer ( Tuebingen: Mohr,! For educational use by the Romans alleged plots against him, and modern for ten years them with and! Relates that hadrian attempted to repress certain important Jewish rituals, in particular.... Describes him as `` slaves '' ( T.B., Bava Batra 10a ) this may have been.. Jacob '' ), Proceedings of the first great Jewish revolt against Rome between 132 and 135.!

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